Who would you rank as the most influential people throughout the years of 0-1000 and 1000-2000 after Christ?

It would be helpful if I knew if you seek the names of individual ‘people’ (individuals) and groups of people working towards a common goal.

Several years ago, one author wrote a book titled ‘How The Irish Saved Civilization: The Untold Story of Ireland’s Heroic Role from the Fall of Rome to the Rise of Medieval Europe’. This is a non-fictional historical book written by Thomas Cahill who argues that Irish monks preserved a significant number of Medieval manuscripts. Thinking about individuals…have you ever wondered why languages west and South of the Rhine and sone language south of he Danube speak Romance languages while those languages north and east of these river tend to be Germanic based?

In 9 CE, The Battle of Teutoburg Forest, often called the Varian Disaster by Roman historians, took place in Teutoburg Forest, when an alliance of Germanc tribes ambushed and decisively destroyed three Roman legions and their auxillaries led by Publius Quinctilius Varus. The anti-Roman alliance of some 18,000 men was led by Arminius, a Germanic officer of Varus’ auxilia, who through education and civic accomplishments acquired Roman full citizenship and was the beneficiary of a Roman military education. Arminius methodically deceived Roman commanders and by anticipating the Roman army’s tactical responses slaughtered all but 3 men who were permitted to return to the Rhine forts to spread the news of the disaster.

Despite several successful campaigns and raids by the Romans in the years before and after the battle, Rome never again attempted to conquer Germanic territories east and north of the Rhine River. The victory of the Germanic tribes against Rome’s legions in the Teutoburg Forest had far-reaching and long term effects on the subsequent history of both the Iron Age Germanic peoples and the Roman Empire. Contemporary and modern historians have generally regarded Arminius’ victory over Varus as “Rome’s greatest defeat,” one of the most decisive battles recorded in military history, and as “a turning-point in European History.”

One must certainly include the Prophet Muhammad, born approximately c. 570 CE to 8 June 632 CE. His religious teachings spread from the southwestern Arabian Peninsula world wide and today guide more than a billion individuals. It is hard to imagine anyone individual whom had a greater impact on the world during the 1st 1,000 years of the common era.

As for the period 1,000 -2,000 CE…. It is hard to argue who was the most important or influential. One way to consider this issue is to consider the individuals who were responsible not so much for event but for paradigm shift that caused human beings to think differently. Certainly of of the most significant inventions of the Common era is gunpowder. Is there anything else An important invention was that of the stern mounted rudder by the Han Chinese in the 5th century CE not adopted by european sailors

Individually, Newtons discovery of the laws of motion and calculus are rather astounding as are Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations, Einstein’s theories of relativity and Oberth’s, von Braun’s, and Goddard’s advances I rockets.

It isn’t easy to ascertain the world’s most influential people!